Water Contaminants and Treatment


The need for clean water is very important from our own household to the entire society. For this reason, keeping out water sources free from contaminants and pollutants must be top priority. Water is accessible by all of us and if the water we intake is not safe and clean for consumption, and then our health is largely threatened with diseases that can lead to death. There are about four kinds of contaminants that may pollute water from the water sources. These are chemicals, dissolved salts, germs and suspended solids.


Chemical contaminants are either natural or man-made. Some of these are nitrogen, bleach, pesticides, salts, metals and toxins from bacteria. Dissolved salts are the result when limestone and other related rocks are contacted with rain water. Minerals from these rocks which are the salts of calcium, magnesium and sodium are dissolved in water. These liquefied salts can make the water hard and will cause upset stomach once consumed. Even though hard water can be treated by use of chemicals, it is not strongly advisable because certain chemicals can contaminate water too. Germs are the most dangerous contaminants of water. They are the main causes of diseases and illnesses. Water acquired from any sources should be double checked and treated to prevent germ contamination. Suspended solids refer to tiny elements of clay, plant matter or iron oxide that floats in water and causes it to become dirty in appearance. These particles can be removed by filtration or letting them settle.

A way of treating water supply to stop contamination is by disinfection. The different types of disinfection include chlorination, filtration and boiling. By the name chlorination, it uses chlorine chemicals to kill contaminants like germs. In chlorination, there should be a small amount of chlorine left in the water to act as security shield against contamination after the treatment. Chlorination treatment uses chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite.


Filtration refers to the process when water is run over a fine sand to remove suspended solids. This process is commonly used in large water supplies. Boiling is the treatment process where water is heated to boil to kill germs in water. This treatment is good for small quantities of water.

Water supply, even though provided by local governments will not ensure safe and clean water. It is difficult to find the source of contamination, too. In this connection, it is recommended that to ensure safety of drinking water, proper treatment should be made to water before it is consumed.

Second Hand Smoking


Smoking does not only provide damages to direct smokers but also to non-smokers who are exposed to second hand smoking. Second hand smoking is also referred as passive smoking or involuntary smoking. The nicotine and other harsh chemicals inhaled by the smokers are the same toxins breathe in by nonsmokers. Second hand smoking can also cause cancer. Exposure to smoke even if it is not directly smoked but by breathing the air around smokers leads to lung cancer. Cancer of the breast, stomach, brain, pharynx and larynx are cancers that second hand smoking causes. There are already many cases of deaths that are connected with second hand smoking.


Children, especially those living with parents and relatives who smoke are the most affected one. This is because their bodies are still at growing stage and they breathe faster than adults. Children exposed to passive smoking are more likely to suffer ear infections, frequent asthma attacks, bronchitis, pneumonia and other respiratory symptoms and infections. Adults who are exposed to second hand smoking also are likely to suffer heart diseases, lung cancer and stroke.

Second hand smoking can be acquired in the workplace, in public places, in the car and at home. The workplace has been considered as the primary source of involuntary smoking for adults. Offices should regulate and implement health responsibility and safety. The separation of smokers and nonsmokers, proper ventilation and maintaining cleanliness are ways to prevent the harms of second hand smoking. Public places also are major source of second hand smoking. Exposure is hefty at parks, malls, restaurants and public transportations.

Though there are communities that ban smoking at public places, certain places still allow smoking. Make sure that you go to places that are smoke-free especially with children around. Nonsmokers are dangerously exposed to secondhand smoking when in the car with a smoker. Even if the windows are open and air-conditioner is on, buildup of toxins is present threatening car passengers. The whole family can be dangerously exposed to second hand smoking particularly at home. Infants and children are at risk more than the adults. It can seriously cause death.


Taking care of your family does not only rely on giving them food and shelter but also by providing them a healthy environment. Not exposing them to second hand smoking is a big thing in making sure that they grow healthy. Quitting smoking does not only free yourself but most especially your loved ones from the threat of serious diseases and deaths.

Dog Approved Human Food


There are a number of myths circulating about people food and dogs: chicken bones flake and can choke a dog, licorice can kill a dog, frosting will upset their stomach for days after they eat it. With so many naysayers regarding sharing our food with dogs, how are we to know what’s okay to share and what Fido should never, ever touch, even if it hits the floor? There are a few dog approved people foods that are okay to share with the pooch, and the dog will love you more for sharing.


Peanut Butter

Peanut butter is a big treat for dogs.They love it and it has many health benefits. It has protein, vitamins B and E, and niacin. Place some peanut butter on a spoon and watch your dog go wild! Whip up some homemade, peanut butter based doggy treats for training and rewarding purposes. Follow this recipe for a tried and true treat:1 peeled banana1 cup oat flour2/3 cups rolled oats1/2 cup dried parsley3 tablespoons peanut butter1 egg

Preheat oven to 300 degrees F. Mash the banana thoroughly. Add all other ingredients and mix thoroughly. Press the dough into 24 individual balls and bake for 40 to 45 minutes.

Cooked Chicken

Surprise! Chicken makes the list. It is true that chickens have very small bones which can get stuck in anyone’s throat, but if the chicken is removed from the bone it will be fine. Many dog owners mix cooked chicken into regular dog food to provide a more filling meal and extra protein to the dog’s diet. The chicken can also be used to replace the dog food if you find you’ve run out and you can’t get out to buy more. Cheese

This treat is good for dogs who aren’t lactose intolerant. You’ll have to watch your dog to make sure they don’t get sick after eating this food. However, cheese is a great treat for dogs in very small amounts. Cheeses are high in fat so feed the dog cheese sparingly. Cottage cheese is always a good choice for dogs as it tends to be lower in fat and the dogs love it. Additionally, it’s easier to digest – as a human. I prefer cottage cheese over other cheeses, so my pooch naturally does as well.

Baby Carrots

These are great on a hot summer day, especially if they come straight out of the refrigerator. The dog will love chewing on something which helps cool their hot mouths. The carrots provide fiber and beta carotene, and are great for teething puppies. The carrots continue to be good for the dog’s teeth as they get older as well because chewing helps reduce plaque buildup and helps the gums stay healthy.


Choose low fat yogurts to feed to the dog, but go ahead and share yogurt for the calcium and protein advantages. Give your dog yogurts without artificial sweeteners or sugars, however, to reduce the dog’s sugar intake. The yogurts with active bacteria will act as probiotics and are great for the digestive system. Eggs

A scrambled egg is a great way to get some protein into your pup. Eggs also serve as a great source of riboflavin and selenium, which make them the perfect snack for the dog.

Apple Slices

Apple slices will help to clean a dog’s teeth and will freshen her breath. Apples provide fiber and vitamins A and C to the dog. As with humans, dogs should not eat the seeds or core of the apple.


Save this treat for when puppy has a stomach ache. The pumpkin can help with digestive issues through its beta-carotene, vitamin A and fiber. When the dog has digestive issues, pumpkin will help move things along and keep doggy regular.


Green Beans

The best green beans for the dog are natural green beans with no added salts or preservatives. This means canned green beans are out. Go for the frozen or fresh varieties for a low calorie, filling snack for the dog. Oatmeal

Oatmeal seems to be good for everyone. It is an excellent source of soluble fiber, which can be invaluable to aging dogs who may have more digestive issues than their younger counterparts. Cooked oatmeal is best for the dog, and be sure to keep it pure. Do not add any sugars or additives.


Skin Care. Mimicry

Closeup of a beautiful smiling young woman

In medical terms, mimicry describes several different conditions ranging from molecular malfunctions to immune disorders to muscle issues. When the term is applied to facial expressions and aging, it is one of the things that contribute to wrinkles, lines, crow’s feet, etc. Simply put, mimicry implies copied or mimicked behavior – regardless of how the term is applied medically. Mimicry is a natural part of the human existence, but its effects on the skin and facial muscles can be lessened if people gain the necessary knowledge and make some simple changes to help avoid it.


In terms of the skin, it stretches in various ways to accommodate muscle and body movement. When a specific facial expression or movement is done repeatedly, the skin begins to “memorize” its location relative to the movement and lines and wrinkles eventually develop. Facial lines and wrinkles resulting from mimicry are very common among people whose work causes continual facial contortions that they are not normally aware of. People who work outdoors are a good example, because of the natural tendency to squint in bright sunlight.

The Problem of Elasticity

As it relates to the skin, elasticity is the ability of the skin to return to its normal position after being stretched. Think of it like a rubber band. As you stretch a rubber band out it conforms to whatever direction you are manipulating it in. But it will return to its normal shape and position when you stop stretching. Our skin works the same way. However, good skin elasticity requires two things: collagen and vitamin C. Collagen is naturally produced by the body while vitamin C comes from external sources.

As the body ages it slowly stops producing collagen at the same levels it did it its younger years. Additionally, overall health and environmental factors combine to rob the body of necessary vitamin C. As both collagen and vitamin C are reduced, the skin loses its ability to “snap back” into place. Thus, the lines and wrinkles that temporarily result from facial expressions can become permanent in the underlying facial tissue if those expressions are repeated frequently.

Avoidable Versus Unavoidable Mimicry

Some forms of mimicry can be avoided without remaining completely expressionless for the majority of our lives. Since that’s not possible, working on avoidable mimicry is the best way to reduce wrinkles and lines caused by it. Using the previous example of a person who works outdoors, wearing sunglasses and a hat works very well in stopping the squinting reflex.

Artists, craftsman, and others who work with small or detailed objects can avoid job-related mimicry as well. A headset magnifying glass makes it easier to see small objects and can, like the sunglasses and hat, put an end to the squinting reflex.


Regardless of the cause of mimicry, its effects can be reduced by understanding what repetitive facial expressions apply to your daily routine and changing what you can to reduce their frequency. With the addition of wrinkle creams and other natural health supplements, lines, wrinkles, and age spots can be totally eliminated for many people.


Atypical Depression


Atypical depression is a a mental illness in which symptoms of both major and dysthymia occur. However, it is not as atypical as its name suggests. According to various studies, it is one of the most common types of depression that usually first occurs during ones teenage years.

With atypical depression, a person is greatly affected by external events. In other words, external events play a huge role in determining the individual’s mood. If they are having a great day, people are being kind to them, and are generally happy with how the day is going, they will be perfectly fine. But in the case of even the slightest criticism can throw them into a slump. In many cases, emotions are constantly fluctuating.

Causes of Atypical Depression

  • Long term use of certain medications such as sleeping pills, oral contraceptives and hormonal preparations, and anti-hypertensive drugs
  • A history of depression in the family
  • Hormonal imbalance and decreased or increased secretion of neurotransmitters
  • Tragic life events such as complicated relationships, death of a loved one and trauma
  • Suffering from an illness or health problem  (eg. stroke, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, etc.)

Atypical Depression Symptoms


Symptoms of atypical depression can include any of the following:

  • Loss of hope
  • Low energy level
  • Feeling hopeless
  • No longer enjoy activities and hobbies once enjoyed
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Unable to make decisions
  • Irritability
  • Unable to sleep at times
  • Lower sexual drive
  • Increase or decrease in eating habits

Studies have shown that those suffering from atypical depression experience less severe symptoms as oppose to those who are have general depression. Additionally, atypical depression tends to be a lot more common in adolescents. Unfortunately, it is often overlook, partly due to the name, which is often misleading. Despite being called “atypical” depression, it is fairly common. The most plausible reason that atypical depression is often overlooked is due to the fact that it is general a mild, yet long lingering form of depression.

Risk factors

Certain risk factors increase the chance that an individual may suffer from atypical depression. These risk factors include post-partum depression, traumatic events during childhood, substance abuse, and the use of medications. Teenagers, women and children are more likely to suffer from atypical depression, as oppose to adult men.

Robin Williams in Las Vegas

Diagnosis of Atypical Depression

As mentioned previously, atypical depression often goes undiagnosed. For diagnosis, a psychological examination of the patient is the first step. There are no laboratory tests can confirm whether one suffers from atypical depression or not. They can only rule out other diseases. In order to be diagnosed with atypical depression, a patient must meet the criteria outlined by Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS).

According to the DMS, someone suffering from atypical depression will generally be happy and ecatic if something good happens. With other types of depression, this is often not the case, which is why atypical depression is somewhat unique.

Aside from the above, the patient must be experiencing at least two of the following symptoms:

  • Increase in weight and/or appetite
  • Hypersomnia
  • Feelings of paralysis
  • Unable to deal with rejection and/or criticism by others

Atypical Depression Treatment

Although medication can work wonders, the most important part of treatment of atypical depression is psychotherapy.  Through the use of psychotherapy, the patient learns more about the type of depression s/he is suffering from, and attempts to figure out the root of their depression. Through cognitive behavioural therapy, the patient will learn how to deal with any negative feelings that trigger their depression into more severe levels.


Other types of psychotherapy used to treat atypical depression include interpersonal therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy and psychodynamic therapy. Though medicinal therapy is a must in some cases, these types of counselling are a must to really battle atypical depression successfully.

Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs), Norepinephrine and Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitors (NDRIs), Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), Atypical antidepressants, Tricyclic antidepressants and Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) are some of the classes of drugs that are commonly used throughout the treatment process of atypical depression.

Other common drugs that may be prescribed include anti-anxiety drugs, anti-psychotics and mood stabilizers. In some patients, two or more drugs may be given together for their additive effect.

If you, or someone you know, is suffering from atypical depression, it is important to get help; the sooner, the better. Atypical depression is common, and treatment is very well possible. The sooner professionals are able to begin treatment, the better.