The need for clean water is very important from our own household to the entire society. For this reason, keeping out water sources free from contaminants and pollutants must be top priority. Water is accessible by all of us and if the water we intake is not safe and clean for consumption, and then our health is largely threatened with diseases that can lead to death. There are about four kinds of contaminants that may pollute water from the water sources. These are chemicals, dissolved salts, germs and suspended solids.
Chemical contaminants are either natural or man-made. Some of these are nitrogen, bleach, pesticides, salts, metals and toxins from bacteria. Dissolved salts are the result when limestone and other related rocks are contacted with rain water. Minerals from these rocks which are the salts of calcium, magnesium and sodium are dissolved in water. These liquefied salts can make the water hard and will cause upset stomach once consumed. Even though hard water can be treated by use of chemicals, it is not strongly advisable because certain chemicals can contaminate water too. Germs are the most dangerous contaminants of water. They are the main causes of diseases and illnesses. Water acquired from any sources should be double checked and treated to prevent germ contamination. Suspended solids refer to tiny elements of clay, plant matter or iron oxide that floats in water and causes it to become dirty in appearance. These particles can be removed by filtration or letting them settle.
A way of treating water supply to stop contamination is by disinfection. The different types of disinfection include chlorination, filtration and boiling. By the name chlorination, it uses chlorine chemicals to kill contaminants like germs. In chlorination, there should be a small amount of chlorine left in the water to act as security shield against contamination after the treatment. Chlorination treatment uses chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite.
Filtration refers to the process when water is run over a fine sand to remove suspended solids. This process is commonly used in large water supplies. Boiling is the treatment process where water is heated to boil to kill germs in water. This treatment is good for small quantities of water.
Water supply, even though provided by local governments will not ensure safe and clean water. It is difficult to find the source of contamination, too. In this connection, it is recommended that to ensure safety of drinking water, proper treatment should be made to water before it is consumed.